Energy utilisation and environmental protection in Romania One of the most serious obstacles for Romania to join the EU next year is the present status of its environmental protection.
According to the Environmental Protection section of the Accession Treaty 29,3 billion Euros have to be spent on this field and the 60% of this amount must be invested by the companies concerned till 2018 - says Attila Korodi under-secretary of Romanian Environmental Ministry.
Between 2007 and 2013 Romania can be given 3,960 billion Euro from EU's structural and cohesive funds for environmental projects. Besides the almost 4 billion Euro worth EU support the county has to ensure 940 million Euros from its domestic budget. During the preparatory period from 2005 to 2006 the drafts of eight projects were submitted to the European Committee which totalled to investments of 222 billion Euros.
Four of the drafts are concerned with water management, three deal with waste management and one is about technical assistance. Five of the eight projects have been already accepted by EU and the amount of supply is 160 billion E. Romania, one of the countries that signed Geneva Convention has to fulfil the requirements of Gothenburg and Kyoto Protocols. The former Protocol orders the reduction of air pollution spreading over the frontiers, more exactly the reduction of SO2, NO, ammonia and VOC emission, the latter one orders the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Obligations undertaken in the Accession Treaty also have to be met.
According to the draft of the Romanian Environmental Operational Program 2006 the most important tasks related to the specific aims are the following: the extension and modernisation of the water- and wastewater-treating systems, establishing integrated waste-managing systems, re-cultivation of polluted areas and the modernisation of heat-supplying systems in specified territories. Besides these tasks modern management-systems have to be developed in nature conservation areas, suitable infrastructure has to be created in the most endangered zones to prevent natural disasters, and technical assistance has to be provided.
The biggest part of the program deals with the modernisation of the urban heat-supplying systems. In this field Romania supports the environmentally friendly developments. The middle and long-term investments prefer the use of renewable energy resources to traditional ones. According to plans Romania intends to increase the use of bio-fuels, so by 2011 the rate of bio-fuels in the whole fuel consumption would be 5,75%. According to information of Euractiv more than 700 Romanian companies are on the blacklist because of polluting the environment. These companies have to modernise their technology otherwise they will be closed down.
If the situation remains the same Romania will have to pay 300.000E penalty /day after joining the EU. Companies polluting the environment are mostly situated in the north-western part of the country: the most endangered areas are Kiskapus, Zlatna, Nagybánya, Nagyvárad, Vajdahunyad.
In the report of Romanian National Environmental Protection Agency some new endangered zones have appeared lately. But there are territories from East as well, which are highly polluted: Bacau county, Galati, Braila, Tulcea county. Except seven rules Romania has integrated EU's environmental laws into its legal system The country was given temporary exemption from fulfilling the regulations of EU related to the conditions of operation of heavy-duty stokers and its emission of air polluting materials.
Till 2018 Romania has temporary exemption from executing requirements of directives of the Council of European Communities about urban wastewater handling.